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Dental problems such as an abscessed tooth, or periapical abscess, is a painful condition caused by infection in a badly damaged or decayed tooth. Once the nerve dies in a badly damaged tooth, infection can cause a fluid buildup where the soft pulp tissue lies in the center of the tooth. The pressure and swelling can be quite painful.



Halitosis, or “bad breath” is a common, but embarrassing condition that often has a dental cause. A thorough examination can help determine the cause and rule out a more serious condition.

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Dental problems such as tooth decay is the process of a tooth’s mineral content being dissolved. A cavity, or caries, is a hole in a tooth that is caused by tooth decay.


There are many possible causes for a toothache. Two of the most common dental causes are the presence of a cavity or an abscess. Some of the other causes of toothaches are quite serious, so you should certainly consult Dr. Koutsioukis for a proper diagnosis.

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Dry mouth, or xerostomia, is caused by an inadequate supply of saliva. Very common in older adults, dry mouth is usually due to medication side effects, but may have other causes.


Fluorosis is a defect in tooth enamel caused by excessive fluoride in young children. It typically looks like white streaks or spots in teeth.

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Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gums that is usually caused by plaque. It is the earliest and most easily treated form of gum disease, as it only affects the gums, but it must be treated to avoid more serious gum disease.


Oral cancer is a common cancer which has a high mortality rate if it is not caught in the early stages. Early detection is key, so regular dental visits are very important. It affects all parts of the mouth, tongue and lips.

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Plaque is a sticky film of bacteria that coats teeth. When we eat, plaque reacts with the food in our mouth and releases acids that eat away at teeth enamel, causing tooth decay.


Tooth sensitivity is a very common problem that can be treated effectively with different products and techniques. It occurs when gums have receded or tooth enamel is worn down to reveal the sensitive parts of the tooth.

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Bruxism is either the clenching or grinding of teeth, or both of them together. We will often recommend a mouth appliance to prevent damage to your teeth, and stress reduction to change the behavior.


Most problems with the jaw come from the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the muscles that help you chew. We have treatments that can ease this pain and discomfort.

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Periodontitis is advanced gum disease. While gingivitis, the earlier stage, affects only the gums, periodontitis is inflammation and infection that has spread to surrounding tissue, including tooth and bone.